Intelligent transportation systems have the potential to give new opportunities in terms of traffic safety.
Technologies ensuring necessary communication between the passenger, road, and vehicle are generally used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) advanced as a result of the adaptation of information and communication technologies to the transportation sector. Within the frame of the developments in engine and safety technologies in recent years, the “Connected Car” technology and “Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems C-ITS” came into view as a result of the transportation systems with mechanical and technical automotive substructure feeding on the information systems.263Amongst several direct and indirect benefits expected from intelligent transportation systems are:
The satellite positioning systems (global navigation satellite systems-GNSS), wireless networks, mobile communication tools, infrared communication, CCTV closed-circuit television, close-range communication technologies, detection technologies, etc. technological advancements under the intelligent transportation systems are adapted to the transportation field as part of these developments and the emergence of developments other than ordinary transportation systems are expected in the ongoing process.265
Progress will be made in the fields of the in-vehicle speed limit, control, and monitoring systems, emergency brake lighting systems, roadwork warning system, weather conditions information system, intersection safety, and the protection of vulnerable road users along with the adaptation of these technologies to vehicle safety. Due to these reasons, it will be necessary to make legal and administrative regulations by following the developments such as the vehicle to vehicle (V2V) knowledge transfer and technologies prescribing interaction and facilitate the use of technologies evaluated to contribute to traffic safety in available vehicles and the vehicles to be produced.
The interaction between humans and machine will be one of the fields to speculate due to the increasing use of technology
The developments starting along with the introduction of smartphones and even smart household appliances into the market show themselves in the transportation and automotive sector for certain. Applications easy-to-use and ones protecting the physical integrity of humans will attain their place in the market along with the adaptation of human-friendly technological applications into smart vehicles and smart roads to move traffic safety to the next level.
When considered from this point of view, it is necessary to make efforts that put humans forward by improving international common ethical values and establish the driver assistance systems, intelligent transportation systems, automatic and autonomous driving systems in a way to protect humans. The evaluation of all these developments in terms of ethical values and human psychology as well as their presentation with a balance to disable technological dependence is of great importance.
The autonomous vehicle technology should be followed up vigilantly and evaluated in terms of traffic safety
Safety is one of the significant criteria in autonomous vehicle technologies and is the primary matter for the relevant institutions and organizations to pay attention in receiving the type approval. The preparation of an action plan in this regard continues across the European Union.266
Interaction with other road users on the same road, artificial intelligence solutions, and the use of autonomous vehicles as a fleet are the main fields observed to be problematic on autonomous vehicles. The common use of autonomous vehicles will require the making of amendments in the legal legislation, changing in the certification of driver’s license and the driver training, establishment of infrastructure pertinent to the use of vehicles, and the review of the regulations on the working hours of the drivers using these vehicles commercially. In this context, the redetermination of traffic rules will be necessary along with the reconditioning in the United Nations Geneva and Vienna Conventions.
According to the European Transportation Safety Council (ETSC) reports, some countries are expected267 to put into practice the legislative regulations on autonomous vehicles in 2022 and within this framework, the EU directive No. 2006/126 on Driver’s License will be required to be extended in a way to ensure that the student drivers can drive all newly-produced semi- and full-autonomous vehicles.
Recently, mobility as pedestrians and bicycle use has been more demandable due to reasons such as health, protection of the environment, and not being affected by traffic jams. Therefore, it will be appropriate to combine this change of demands with a more habitable environment by taking this change in people in intracity traffic into account.
One of the biggest barriers in meeting the demand on travelling as a pedestrian or by bicycle is infrastructure deficiencies and the potential of the category forming the vulnerable road users group to get harmed in traffic.
Therefore, policies should be adopted to ensure that vulnerable road users get less harmed in the coming years. These developments should be ensured in infrastructure, vehicle technology, and road user behaviours topics. The European Union Infrastructure Safety Directive No. 2008/96 approaches the safety of vulnerable road users in intracity and upstate main roads.
Speed controls are the most important topics in terms of preventing the road user behaviours from bringing damage to vulnerable segments. Additionally, the controls need to be supported by training and campaigns. Amongst the measures to take to protect the vulnerable road users are:
The common use of a private vehicle (such as the persons working at the same workplace going to the office in a single-vehicle) being a new type of transportation in many European cities has been observed frequently in the recent years. In some cases, it is observed that motorcycles, motor bicycles, and scooter-type vehicles and well as automobiles are commonly used by two persons. It is even considered that these methods have been started to be increasingly used in the courier, cargo, and distribution sector.
It is considered that the walking trails and bicycle lanes built to do exercise and employ leisure time will have difficulty in meeting the newly emerging need due to the difficulty in reaching all parts of the city in the use of these modes especially in commercial cargo and courier transportation and that the aforesaid transportation modes getting over to the road section used by vehicle traffic will bring along other safety risks. Within this context, it is recommended to:270
Based on the fact that the average age of the population in the world gradually increases, ensuring the safety of persons with disabilities with limited mobility and the elderly in traffic has become an important topic. With this object in mind it is necessary to;
Ensuring traffic safety while performing the modification, repair, and construction in road infrastructure is also an important topic within commercial freight and passenger transportation.
The two-wheeler motor vehicles play a serious part in loss of lives related to the traffic accidents although they are few in numbers when compared to the total number of vehicles. However, it is also seen that these rates change in some countries.
The consideration of the safety of the two-wheeler motor vehicles and the preparation of a guidebook on the protective systems and strengthened infrastructure options and its distribution to relevant institutions and organizations is necessary within the directive No. 2008/96 on Infrastructure Safety. The following matters become crucial within this scope:272
Amongst our cities, it is recommended;