One of the most important factors in the occurrence of traffic accidents is the behaviours of road users. The training the road users received and are receiving, and their previous travel experiences are decisive in the behaviours of road users. Traffic training involves not only the drivers, pedestrians, passengers, cyclists, motorcyclists, which we refer to as road users, but also children, namely our future, the teachers that train them, academicians, units responsible for traffic controls, engineers designing and constructing the road transportation infrastructures, the policy-makers, and the entire society in a nutshell. A sustainable, human-oriented traffic training to involve all sorts of road users can be defined as one of the most effective instruments to reduce traffic accidents. In reports published by international organizations, suggestions were made on several issues such as; encouraging a more comprehensive approach rather than a limited approach on driver’s training, perceiving training and education as a life-long “educational process”, andadditionally, expanding training and education in a way that includes all road users, preparing practical and theoretical trainings that can be adapted to all age groups, identifying the minimum standards on driver’s test and trainers, considering the vulnerable road users, studying the training alternatives on the safety of cyclists and pedestrians, and the eligibility to drive for elderly people, taking various measures such as establishing the proper infrastructure design and signalizations and ensuring sufficient passive safety devices, taking safety-improving measures for motorcyclists, and driver support systems, (intelligent) speed limiters, seatbelt reminders, as well as e-call.
Training is one of the important elements of the Safe System Approach in traffic safety. Educational campaigns are conducted as well as traffic safety and transportation trainings are provided in each step of the training at school as required by the approach recommended in EU countries. Nevertheless, it is observed that there are different training approaches in EU countries and countries where there are different practices rather than what is recommended.115 Training and information are accepted to be one of the fields to focus on successful and safe driving behaviour. Owning a driver’s license shows that the certificate holder gained the proper information, skills and abilities. Within the training activities, there are approaches on training, information, and education of the driver as well as raising the awareness of children and young road users, and drivers. Training of drivers is a long and difficult process and requires attention and care It is considered, in general, that the traffic violations originate from the fact that the driver overestimates their skills, cannot perceive risks or underestimates them, and is influenced by their environment socially/ psychologically. Drivers meet motor bicycles or motorcycles at and after the age of 15 and start to enjoy the feeling of using a vehicle for the first time. It can be ensured that practical trainings are provided in terms of adopting proper rules as well as developing familiarity with the traffic rules, signs, and order, and that the acquired information is consolidated in formal education levels before the basic driver training. Supporting theoretical training with practical applications and demonstrating aftermaths probable to arise in case of non-compliance to rules in a written, visual, and audial format will increase comprehension.
Figure: Two-Stage Driver Training
The driver training is provided in-depth in secondary education according to another system practised in some countries. Basic driving skills are acquired, the driving skills of the student are developed with theoretical and practical courses, and traffic rules are taught in formal education which is continued beyond the level of traffic culture. The students passing the written and practice tests during the training stage are awarded the “Student Driver’s License”, significant limitations are made to ensure that they improve their driving skills in the flowing traffic. The student driver passing the “Temporary Driver’s License” stage after this one drives the vehicle restrictedly and obtains the right to become a competent driver as long as they fulfil the conditions. The following figure shows the aforementioned three-stage driver certification system: Figure: Three-Stage Driver Certification
It is necessary to approach a number of important headings in detail while examining the subject of driver training: • Young and inexperienced drivers, • Accompanied driving and recently certified drivers, • and driver courses topics will be examined in detail. Young and inexperienced drivers Learning how to drive a vehicle is a complex and long-termed learning activity. It contains such criteria as obtaining the information, improving one’s driving skills, and being able to make use of risk and ability. Thus, because inexperienced drivers play a major role in accident statistics, is not an easy process.116 A large part of the student drivers in the learning stage is young; in this respect, programmes grounding on the structure of youth should be developed. According to the research, there are three main problems and risks for young drivers:117 • Overestimating their skills and neglecting risks, • Lack of motivation to ensure a sufficient level of safety, • Lack of experience. Efforts on brain development indicate that the part of the human brain at the age of 18, particularly the part related to impulse control and information integration (thinking before acting), is sufficiently developed.118 One of the factors effective over young drivers is the social pressure generated over this age group. As the youth in this age group are still climbing the steps on completing their personality developments, they exhibit behaviours to other people except what they normally are, and behaviours that may mean taking extreme risks in traffic. It is considered that the young male drivers overestimated their existing skills, drove their vehicles at an extreme and inconvenient speed, and resorted to such unsafe behaviours as not using the seatbelt and wearing motorcycle protective head guards.119 Furthermore, it is scientifically accepted that the youth are also sensitive to the pressure around them. Experiences show that young drivers are less attentive to the following distance and drove the vehicle faster.
116 OECD/ECMT Transport Research Centre, Young drivers; the Road to Safety, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, 2006 117 OECD/ECMT, Speed Management, ISBN 92-821-0377-3, Paris, 2006, p.138 118 N.Y.Acad. Sci., Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of The Adolescent Brain, 1021, DOI; 10.1196/annals.1308.009, 2004, p.77- 85 119YOURS-Youth for Road Safety, Youth for Road Safety Action Kit, ISBN 978-90-9026297-0, Amsterdam, 2012
ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY STRATEGY PAPER (2021 - 2030) 135
120 Swedish National Road Administration, Young Novice Drivers, Driver Education And Training, Literature review, VTI rapport 491A, 2003, p.21-40 121 SWOV, Post-Licence Training For Novice Drivers, Fact sheet, Leidschendam, the Netherlands, 2009 122 TRL, How can we produce safer new drivers? A review of the effects of experience, training and limiting exposure on the collision risk of new drivers, Insight Report INS005, ISBN 978-1-84608-827-8, 2010 123 Highway Safety-100% Safety in Traffic Project, Activity; 2.3, Guideline on the Evaluation of Driver Training and Driver Certification Practices and Assessment Made for Two Pilot Provinces, Project Identity No; Europeaid/138069/IH/SER/TR, 2020, p.18
Accompanied driving and newly certified drivers Lack of experience of young drivers is a significant problem in terms of the risks and dangers that may arise while driving. Drivers should be able to foresee the potential risks to be posed as well as prevent the risks they may pose. To solve this problem, many countries adopted such practices as driving under the supervision of parents (accompanied driving), and the system of accompanied driver training by which they will gain more experience in roads before they receive their driver’s license for driving unaccompanied. It was observed that persons gaining experience trained in this system, then fulfilling the necessary conditions got involved in a smaller number of accidents.120 In the accompanied driving period, the attitude of the senior driver accompanying to traffic rules is extremely important, and it is necessary to pay regard to the violation and accident records of the parent assigned for this period. There is also a period when the student drivers are allowed to drive unaccompanied following the period when they are accompanied, and some restrictions are imposed to protect drivers against high-risk situations in this period. Limiting the alcohol level in the blood from a lower step, limiting driving at night, and disabling presence of persons at the similar age group of the driver in this vehicle are amongst these restrictions.121 Driving courses The value the driving courses add to the society is notis not based on directly preventing accidents and losses, it is the development and legalizing of a road safety culture to ensure the mechanisms to reduce accidents and losses.122 The assignment to train a private motor vehicle driver in Turkey, certify those trained after their tests, provide training and education on traffic, allow the opening of private driving courses, and supervise these courses was given to the Ministry of National Education with the Road Traffic Law. Driver trainings are the leading subjects necessary to establish road traffic safety completely in every sense and to lay stress on. The driver trainings are planned, and training modules are developed by the Ministry of National Education Directorate General of Private Education Institutions in Turkey. 34 hours of theoretical and 16 hours of practical driving training, namely a total of 50 hours of training is currently provided for persons to drive automobile-type vehicles in Motor Vehicle Driver Courses. In European countries, driver trainings and test models are developed according to the Directive of the European Commission No. 2006/126/EC.
There are practical variations between countries, although several countries are accommodating their driver training and certification systems to the Directive of the European Commission No. 2006/126/EC. Many new systems such as trial periods, temporary information and gradual information systems, theoretical tests, and danger perception tests are still in the implementation phase. Courses theoretically provided in all driver license categories are as follows according to the relevant articles of the Ministry of National Education Regulation on Motor Vehicle Driver Courses; • Traffic and Environment - 16 hours, • First aid - 8 hours, • Vehicle technique - 6 hours, • Traffic manners - 4 hours. Besides, student drivers are provided with driving courses for at least 2 hours in an artificial training area or a simulator before allowing them to take courses in the flowing traffic. According to the driver’s license classes of the driving courses, the training is ensured to be provided; • 12 hours for M, A1, A2, A and B1 category driver’s license, • 6 hours for A category driver’s license, • 14 hours for B category driver’s license, • 7 hours for D1 category driver’s license, • 14 hours for D category driver’s license, • 20 hours for C category driver’s license, • 6 hours for BE, C1E, CE, D1E and DE category driver’s license, • 12 hours for F category driver’s license. The practical driving training courses are provided in the flowing traffic on intracity or intercity roads. Three points were underlined in the report named “Guideline on the Evaluation of Driver Training and Driver Certification Practices and Assessment Made for Two Pilot Provinces” prepared within the Highway Safery-100% Safety in Traffic Project conducted as part of the National Programme of Turkey 2013-Pre-Accession Financial Aid Tool and the following matters were specified:123 • The aim of determining minimum hours for theoretical and practical trainings is to ensure that student drivers receive formal education at the desired level. However, the student drivers are recommended to receive proper trainings to ensure that they can pass the necessary examinations/tests no matter which system is used. The fact that the training should be shaped according to the learner if necessary, and to help the learner gain the driving skill, as the knowledge, skills and capacity of each learner will differ,
ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY STRATEGY PAPER (2021 - 2030)136 • Making efforts to ensure a total consistency in the training and education quality of trainers, • With reference to the fact that the Gradual Driver Information System has measurable benefits, this method should be analysed. Accordingly, it is necessary to transform the driver trainings into a long-term gradual structure without restricting them with only short terms, include the danger perception trainings to the training content, provide the aforesaid danger perception trainings and tests according to the scoring basis, and improve their tests outside the classroom environment, at home, and office by developing specific software in gradual trainings. Additionally, as it is seen from the country practice examples, the inclusion of the learner in a practical driving skill acquiring training for 120 hours accompanied by an expert driver before their driving test is also extremely important. Practical training models enabling the inexperienced driver to improve their skills on speedways and intracity roads, night and datime periods, during rainy days and on rainy and frosted grounds should also be developed as well.
According to studies performed on the best practice examples related to the driver trainings emerging lately, it is observed that the driver trainings focusing on practical driving techniques are notare not sufficient for traffic safety and that it is necessary to focus on such fields as traffic culture, driver ethical behaviour, and environmental driving as well as the vehicle driving techniques within driver trainings.
It is asserted that the training provided in the driving courses should involve elements that strengthen driving skills such as driver behaviours and psychology, driver motivations, planning, and decision making as well as teaching how to drive a vehicle.
Within this scope, concerning the fact that the driver training is also a process in international organizations along with the change in the understanding of driving course training in several developed countries, it evaluates the driver training in the “life-long learning” category by because the skills the drivers acquire should be kept alive, updated, and improved consistently.
The skills and abilities of the student driver on driving a vehicle should be aimed at being maximized before taking the driving test. A driver training focusing only on passing the driving test cannot be expected to influence in changing the traffic culture of the student driver.
It is necessary to ensure the continuity of the driving skills of persons entitled to become a driver with life-long learning processes following the driver’s license test, perform their medical examinations at certain intervals, and confirm that their physical conditions, driving skills and abilities carry on.
Refreshment trainings are ones that the driver should be successful in the test the drivers put to depending on the commitment or repeating of some traffic offences and organized at the end of the training so that the driver’s license can be valid again. There are also some EU member states providing the compulsory refreshment training for drivers passing a certain threshold traffic violation point in the violation point system applied against violations.
There are data on the fact that positive results have been achieved following the drivers being put to mandatory training once more in case they committed certain traffic violations. For instance, it is observed that drivers repeatedly overspeeding stopped overspeeding by 90% in case their driver’s license was temporarily decertified and they were subjected to specific trainings such as “Speed Awareness Training” compulsorily subsequently. Likewise, in case the violations of some traffic rules that form the main reasons of traffic accidents are identified to be committed, it is considered that the participation of the driver in courses where the importance of the rule, the subject of violation, is mandatorily notified to the driver in-depth by suspending their driver’s license.124
In some countries, the drivers are put to a test following the driver course training provided to the student drivers, the student drivers succeeding in the test are restricted to drive and ensured to gain experience for a certain period.
The fact that all drivers are subjected to training for specific periods is significant in terms of traffic safety to ensure that their driving skills are improved, and their reaction times are measured, tested while driving, and taken to danger perception tests. Following the directives and recommendations of the European Commission, the drivers stipulated to be subjected to psycho-technics examination according to their vehicle grades as of the year when they acquired their driver’s license, especially the heavy vehicle drivers by being taken to a minimum of 35-hours periodical trainings in 5 years periods.
Drivers under the status of student driver for a certain period trained again or are ensured to be tested for their experiences with a second examination without being provided with any training. This two-stage test system aims to ensure that the student drivers, who did not have the experience to practice sufficiently during the driving course, can drive unaccompanied after driving for a length of time accompanied and under real-time traffic conditions and internalized the traffic culture.
“Safe Driving Rules Trainings” provided for drivers ascertained to have involved in the greatest number of accidents as the faulty party in the recent years and awareness-raising and training activities are organized by the Directorate General of Security.
The research conducted infers that the percentage of drivers transporting commercial freight and passenger in being involved in a traffic accident is higher at varying rates between 30% and 50% when compared with private vehicle drivers.125 Again, according to the results of another research, it is considered that only 12% of the drivers transporting commercial freight and passenger across the world were subjected to a formal course and training within professional driving or received traffic safety training. On the other hand, it is indicated that the vehicles transporting freight and passenger for commercial purposes got involved in 25% of all traffic accidents involving death primary or secondary faulty party across the world.126
There are few efforts on how contributive the trainings provided for professional drivers have been to traffic safety and effective on the formation of traffic culture. It is recommended to provide trainings including the subjects of defensive driving techniques, professional driving ethics, effective first and emergency aid intervention, the impact of driving exhausted and restless on traffic safety, commercial freight and passenger transportation law for the commercially professional drivers after the standard driving course and of international rights, powers, and responsibilities for drivers transporting internationally. It is considered that such professional driving training involving these subjects will be at least 20% effective in reducing the accidents in which aforesaid drivers get involved.127 Although there had been a 15% increase in the amount of freight carried in the EU countries between 2003 and 2010, a 37% of decrease was achieved in the percentage of being involved in accidents involving the death of this driver group thanks to the trainings provided for professional drivers. It is believed that the directive No. 2003/59/EC put into practice on 10.09.2003 has been effective in this improvement. This directive aimed at building skills and gaining knowledge on the transportation activities requiring precision from professional drivers along with the provision of standard driver training across Europe.128
Taking account of the fact that driving exhausted and restless and making excessive and inconvenient speed are the most violated traffic rules committed by drivers transporting freight and passenger for commercial purposes.
The training to be provided for these drivers is evaluated to include the importance of driving assistance equipment in vehicles, fuel consumption of economic driving methods, its impact on the protection of the environment and the facilitative effects of technology on driving, and the rules to comply with in international transportation as well as the importance of the protection of vulnerable road users.
Furthermore, it is recommended to refresh the driving skills of professional drivers every 5 years and subject them to in-service training to convey the changes and developments in the field and include such topics as driving durations, transportation of hazardous materials, the conditions of packaging and transportation of the carried freight, use of navigation, overloading in the trainings along with the directive No. 2003/59/EC.129
The trainings and certification periods of such drivers frequently driving commercially on particularly long-distance roads and described as professional drivers are one of the issues deliberated by the European Commission. As such, the application of some rules was recommended by the European Union countries for drivers with class C and D driver’s licenses with the directive No. 2003/59/EC. Accordingly, it is stipulated that these drivers be included in a theoretical examination with a training programme to be provided or be subjected to both the theoretical and practical examination without being provided with a prior training programme.
Moreover, it is necessary for drivers using buses and truck/towing truck type of vehicles to improve their skills by taking the professional in-service training programme every 5 years. Tiredness and restlessness are known to be the main reasons for 20% of traffic accidents. In principle, it is necessary not to exceed the driving periods of 9 hours a day or 56 hours a week continuously, and to have a break of at least 45 minutes after each 4.5 hours drive. In this respect:
The classification of hazardous materials in terms of Hazardous Material Transportation, training of persons conducting transportation activities, packaging standards, product labelling, and technical conditions of vehicles are also important. Route assistance guidelines and driver assistance systems are also matters to necessarily work on for professional drivers.
Besides, driving loading over the legal limit was also forbidden according to directives. The learner drivers to conduct commercial passenger and cargo transportation are to possess the SRC Certificates being entitled to by participating in the trainings provided by SRC Training Centres licensed by the Ministry of National Education. However, it is necessary to bear in mind that the aforesaid trainings have been provided to the professional driver theoretically in their career. The repetition of trainings at certain intervals in a way to involve the implementation processes and extension of their scopes will be befitting.
Scientific studies on traffic safety show that the human factor is amongst the ones that are effective in the occurrence of traffic accidents, which is the main field of interest of traffic safety and the human-driven errors can be grouped under three main topics such as driver, passenger, and pedestrian errors. Overspeeding, driving under the influence of alcohol, driving wearily, extreme self-confidence, reckless driving, and acting irresponsibly are amongst the human-driven errors in traffic accidents.
The sooner the awareness and responsibility in traffic are engrained in an individual with traffic training, the more effective the outcome will become. Children, trained about traffic at early ages, will emerge as the responsible adults, pedestrians, and drivers of the future as well as protecting themselves.
As training is defined as the process of changing human behaviours in the desired course, it has become crucial to ensure that people gain the behaviours we expect from them on traffic through training. Training activities on traffic safety are carried out at both formal and non-formal training institutions, and motor vehicle training courses.130
According to a report prepared by the European Commission, the frame of traffic safety was drawn as the “total of measures aiming at positively affecting the behavioural patterns in traffic”. The same report specified traffic safety training as one of the three components of traffic safety along with engineering and control, and determined the following topics as the traffic safety training topics:
The driver personality may take on an entirely different structure while driving, the excitement of the driver may increase along with the involvement of other traffic factors in the meantime. These excitement feelings may generally create a negative impact on our behaviours when we enter traffic and cause behavioural recklessness directly. The more intense the excitement is experienced the more the driver tries to cope with it. Trivial details that negatively affect the driver behaviours due to not being known by anyone and the hardship of sitting in a roofed vehicle may trigger the emergence of strong emotions.
Drivers think that they are racing one another in traffic, and as they see the situation as a matter of winning or losing, the language they use gets worse and becomes open to all kinds of internal and environmental provocation, and this condition, which we may refer to as the ultimate superego of drivers, leaves a negative impression over other drivers and causes the other drivers to get influenced just as contagious diseases.132
Education, training, information, and comprehensive road traffic and road safety policy are the essential components of a traffic safety culture. These components are a prerequisite for practices and measures such as legislation, infrastructure, traffic safety management, control, and vehicle engineering to become effective and productive.
Traffic and road safety training should be provided in a sustainable way throughout life continuing as a road user (driver, passenger, pedestrian, cyclist, and motorcyclist) by starting from pre-school. A life-long sustainable training policy will ensure that the road users can understand why the road users and road safety is this important, and some specific measures.
It will be appropriate to review the curriculum related to the topic and revise necessary parts in pre-school education, primary school, secondary school, and higher education.
Additionally, the provision of traffic trainings at all class levels in a mandatory course status with a curriculum to be developed according to all class levels in schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education will enable the awareness-raising of children, who are the learner drivers of the future.
It is deemed suitable to amend by comparing the programmes related to driving courses as well as formal and non-formal education with the programmes of developed countries. Public education centres are a good opportunity to inform the undocumented citizens showing mobility as pedestrians and passengers on traffic and road safety.
The effective communication techniques of today should be utilized to raise the awareness of citizens concerning the issue. Social media and customary applications, awarded quizzes, and information activities through the internet should be organized in addition to the previously used radio, television, banners, billboards, and conventional flyers.
The traffic safety training provided with formal and non-formal training methods is significant to raise awareness on traffic regulations and support the compliance with traffic rules. In classical terms, road safety training focused on materializing the idea of ensuring that the road users learned traffic rules and comply with them. This approach cannot be considered sufficient to create traffic culture in terms of being an important complementary of infrastructure design and proper traffic regulations and protect humans as part of the Safe System Approach.
It is necessary to put forth a new approach, underlining the need to abandon the understanding that one can only get results through controls and that traffic safety training is a life-long continuing learning activity, and focusing on actualizing the behavioural changes by being supported with trainings and campaigns by centring upon the traffic errors and faulty behaviours, being of significance in terms of traffic safety and causing a great number of loss of lives each year within the frame of the classical approach.
Table: Differences Between Road Safety and Safe Behaviour in Traffic Training
Road Safety Training
Safe Behaviour in Traffic Training
Protective/Acting depending on the situation
Taking measure before the incident
From top to bottom
Based on passive learning, impersonating the conditions in real life
Active learning in real social life conditions
Based on rules
Based on culture, conditions, and places
Accepting the road as the priority movement area of vehicles
Setting off from the fact that streets are social interaction and development places
Recognizing and managing risks
Preventing and reducing the percentage of accidents
Enhancing the quality of life, development of children, developing and improving street conditions, increasing the number of children in streets
Influencing the individual behaviour
Improving social responsibility
Information-based rules and strategies
Ensuring enough practical mobility and assuming responsibility
Based on school and student-centred curriculum and time-limited
Attaching importance to school and cooperation, based on multi-actor and division of responsibilities, including life as a whole
Resource: RoSaCe; Road Safety Cities in Europe, Towards a Street Safety Education Model, Methodological Guidelines, 2009, p.9
Humanity is almost always a part of traffic in their daily lives, sometimes as a pedestrian, sometimes as a driver. European countries carry out activities on continuing the trainings provided related to traffic throughout primary school, secondary school, high school, and university as from the pre-school period in this regard. The recommendation on the provision of Road Safety trainings to children and youth at all ages was issued under the Vienna Convention (UNECE) dated 1968. The organization of effective traffic safety programmes by the ministries of transportation of European Union member states for the road users in different target groups was determined in the Valetta Declaration published by the European Commission in 2017.
Training approach referred to as the “21st-century skills” and found to be an indispensable global norm today dictates the development and maturation of humans in light of what they can achieve in the material world under the name of “gaining soft skills” such as creativity, communication, teamwork, as well as critical thinking. This approach is a strategic cognitive frame imported to every corner of the world. Reiterating the link between training and philosophy has become even more critical in this continuity, which extends over today, when the cyber-physical systems, being the final point, the technological advancements have reached, have started to be deployed in all areas, right from ancient times to modernization, and the industrial revolution to the digital era.
The training suggestions of the 2023 Training Vision in the 21st century is a double reading as a 21st Century Training and Education Model. Gaining skills is not enough to face life. What is necessary is a maturation, development, progress, change, and more sentiment that involving and embraces al universal, local, material, spiritual, occupational, moral, and national values pertaining to humanity.133
The elements of traffic safety should be the following according to the best practice examples in traffic training;134
Traffic safety training has been accepted as a process to be sustained lifelong. Accordingly, it is recommended that all children and youth receive an effective Road Traffic Safety and Mobility Training, an effective curriculum be prepared for these trainings, a teacher responsible for traffic educations be assigned in each school, and teachers assigned be subjected to standard training.
Trainings on traffic safety are provided an hour a week in the fourth grade and ninth grade mandatorily in Turkey, otherwise, thereare not any other training module in other grades. Traffic safety is explained in the form of a drama according to the age group of children with limited opportunity at kindergartens and daycare centres in the pre-school period. It is deemed suitable that providing the trainings gradually according to the ages and education levels, although it is considered that the traffic training model currently implemented in Turkey needs improvement. It is also possible to establish Traffic Simulation Training Rooms, where practical virtual traffic trainings are provided, with the VR-supported Virtual Bicycle Tour practically strengthening the safe use of bicycles of students at primary schools.
All research and development activities carried out to calm traffic safety, infrastructure, and traffic density in the field of civil engineering and urban planning within universities should be ensured to be conducted by the traffic engineering or transportation safety departments to be established.
Orientation to relevant fields can be encouraged by creating the necessary employment areas for graduates of these departments to be utilized in fields in the transportation and cargo sector. Relevant priority efforts to be made along with the practices reflecting the available road safety status of Turkey can be made available to the use of public and private sector by preparing research reports in these departments.
The following should be amongst the three basic issues to be emphasized in the road safety training according to the results of scientific studies:135
Aforesaid three basic issues form the building blocks of achieving the results targeted in terms of training methods and traffic safety.
Figure: Building Blocks of Traffic Safety Training
According to the analysis of data obtained from a study conducted in European Union countries, ten basic steps of traffic safety for formal education was determined and recommended to other countries as best practice examples of countries. The research asserts that ten basic steps of traffic safety training are:136
Under the principle of ensuring educational integrity, behaviour development and perfection is a lifelong activity. “Educational Integrity” reaches out from kindergarten to the period after receiving the driver’s license and aims at ensuring the “student driver” to gain the competencies step by step thanks to the sequential programmes adapted to the biological age of the student.
Each programme or step within the integrity uses the knowledge and competence acquired with the previous steps. Some themes discussed once in any step are readdressed by being considered from a different angle or added some information later. Traffic safety as part of “Educational Integrity” today should include the following steps:137
Phase 1; Introduction to traffic training, kindergarten and primary education
Phase 2; High school, the students between the ages of 14-16, preparation to student driver’s license test,
Phase 3; Permanent driver’s license based on the penalty point system (12 points),
Phase 4; continuing the traffic safety education in higher education and universities,
Phase 5; Provision of rehabilitation and improvement trainings for drivers performing more than one traffic violation,
Phase 6; Performing the medical check-ups of elderly drivers, providing reminder trainings for review of rules forgotten, rehabilitating the traffic accident victims to overcome their fear of traffic and gain self-confidence.
One of the most important factors leading to the occurrence of traffic accidents is the behaviours of road users. Training the road users received or are receiving determine, as well as their previous road experiences, the behaviours of road users. Traffic trainingdoes not only include the drivers, pedestrians, passengers, bicycle and motorcycle riders, who we define as types of road users, but also our children, namely our future, the teachers that train them, academicians, units responsible for traffic safety, engineers designing and building road transportation infrastructure, policymakers, and the entire society in a nutshell. A sustainable, human-oriented traffic training to include all kinds of road users can be described as one of the most effective instruments to decrease traffic accidents.
Interesting results have been obtained from research conducted on the effectiveness of traffic safety campaigns. According to these results;138
The following were included amongst the features of a well-organized traffic safety campaign in the report prepared by the UN organization named the Traffic Safety Partnership:139
In thematic reports prepared as a result of research conducted by the European Union, the following matters are recommended for the planning and running of traffic safety campaigns:140
a. The use of evidence-based on a theoretical model to be included at the heart of the effort or the accident database,
b. Making an assessment plan to measure the effectiveness of the campaign for future improvements,
c. Identifying the problem and determining a well-selected message,
d. Identifying the target group and finding the proper way of communication to reach them (TV spots, leaflets, radio interviews, school activities, entertainment activities for youth, gas stations, school areas, etc. based on the target group),
e. Including all stakeholders from police and other control institutions being of vital importance to the campaign activities,
f. The supervisions related to the subject of campaign being of vital importance after the 2-weeks information period,
g. The overview of the best practice examples countries, preparing annual programmes having 4 or 6 messages annually and including a supervision plan,
h. Preferring the organization of an independent campaign financially supported,
i. The positive contributions of associations and foundations being road victims to the campaigns,
j. and the use of cultural elements in the campaign should be evaluated in detail.
Furthermore, the public arena can be involved by ensuring active training experiences in campaigns, the examples of which may be; the street theatre performances, shutdown of streets, using traffic cone or portable materials and changing the street design temporarily, and speed limit trials.
As the responsibility is allocated to the system designers to establish and manage a safe system as part of the Safe System Approach, it is of great importance that the training efforts include these persons as well. Planners, engineers, health care staff, executioners, and other actors should have a good grasp of the Safe System Approach. Capacity building and training efforts should target these critical stakeholders.
The study referred to as the “Media Campaigns Practice Set”, prepared by the World Health Organization, recommends the organization of campaigns in areas proving the main risk factor in terms of traffic safety to begin with. These areas may lead to: overspeeding, driving under the influence of alcohol, not using protective head guard, seatbelts, and child protection equipment. Making necessary legislative regulations, putting into practice an institutional structuring, collecting data, and informing as well as sensitising the public before launching a campaign is exceedingly important. It is recommended that these campaigns;141
• be continued up to 6-9 weeks between the data collection process before the campaign and assessment process after the campaign,
• focus on a different risk factor every time,
• include the potential negative outcomes of the determined risk factor (such as a high penalty, the number of deaths and injuries),
• have a realistic and shocking message,
• have TV broadcastings, radio spots, and outdoor boards pertinent to the use of mass media on standby,
• continue 4-6 weeks to reach all segments of society,
• have their budgets determined in advance,
• show the features of reiterating the messages including these messages repetitively.
Concerning the fact that the road traffic safety campaigns are run in ten steps, the stages and steps related to the conduct of campaign projects are explained as follows:142
Phase 1; Planning of the Project and Conduct of Research
Phase 1; Planning of the project, organizing the project team, determining the consultants and stakeholders, determining the strategy alternatives, and identifying the budget and implementation calendar,
Phase 2; Identifying the socio-economic environment where the campaign will be put into practice, and conducting the desk research related to its features,
Phase 3; Examining the elements, features, measurability, realizability of the strategy to be adopted, whether it is scheduled and its relevance (performing the SMART Analysis),
Phase 4; Researching the target group to design the strategy,
Phase 2; Production
Phase 5; Identification of messages and materials, researching when and where to give the messages,
Phase 6; Testing the main idea and concept of the campaign,
Phase 7; Performing the pre-test of the messages and materials, evaluating the messages and materials in detail,
Phase 3; Distribution
Phase 8; Making the distribution strategy and media planning, identification of airtime, and determining how to initiate the opening of the campaign,
Phase 9; Launching the campaign, putting it into practice, monitoring, and changing the strategy when necessary,
Phase 4; Assessment
Phase 10; Assessing, measuring the effects of the campaign, determining its effect on the accumulation of knowledge, awareness, and behavioural change of the target group, and reviewing to what extent the campaign reached the target group.
Information and Awareness-Raising Efforts and Campaigns Conducted by the DGS Traffic Presidency
The DGS Traffic Presidency carries out training, information activities, and campaigns as well as control activities to minimize the loss of lives resulting from traffic accidents. The priority steps to take in the field of traffic safety were taken with the Road Traffic Safety Implementation Policy Paper put into practice by the Ministry of Interior in 2017 by determining the framework of objective-driven activities to be conducted with other stakeholder institutions as well as the ones undertaken institutionally. Training cooperation activities, training and information efforts, and social campaigns were put into practice with the stakeholder institutions under the coordination of the Ministry of Interior to for this purpose.
I Am Also A Traffic Police This Holiday Red Whistle for A Bad Driver
Control effect is aimed at being created on “overspeeding, use of a seatbelt, and use of cell phone while driving” over particularly the vehicle drivers by using the effect of children to have their way over families through aforesaid campaigns launched in 2018 and continued. As such, it is aimed at raising awareness over all drivers and passengers using vehicles on Eid-Al Adha, Ramadan, mid-term, and summer holidays, when traffic density is particularly experienced utilizing red whistles, hats, and t-shirts for children travelling with their parents.
Around 1 million red whistles, 13,000 pieces of campaign hats and t-shirts with a red whistle logo, 150,000 pieces of name tags, 10,000 brochures, 100,000 leaflets, and billboards were designed within the campaign, the Turkish Radio and Television Institution (TRT) prepared 3 TV and radio spots and ensure their broadcast on national channels. Besides, 7,047,294 children and 2,820,678 road users have been provided with the information and training activity within the campaign so far.
Pedestrian-Priority in Traffic Campaign
The first right of way was given to pedestrians in pedestrian and school crossings without a traffic light along with the amendment made in the traffic law in 2018 and a campaign on pedestrian safety was launched with the “Life is Your Priority, Priority Belongs to the Pedestrian” across Turkey, concurrently in all 81 provinces, on 6 February 2019, in a way to involve driver and pedestrians to create a pedestrian-priority traffic awareness within this scope. The physical conditions of pedestrian crossings in all provinces were inspected within the campaign. Besides, awareness-raising trainings were provided for 2,111,548 drivers and pedestrians to emphasize pedestrian priority in 2019.
The year 2019 was declared as the “Pedestrian-Priority Traffic Year” by the Ministry to ensure that drivers slow down and give the right of way to pedestrians through getting their attention to a higher level by warning them before pedestrian and school crossings, the “pedestrian first” icons underlining pedestrian priority over roads was ensured to be designed on all school and pedestrian crossings without a light in the approach direction of vehicles.
Moreover, a total of 29,303 crossings out of a total of 61,444 crossings, namely 40.346 pedestrian crossings and 21,098 school crossings, were designed with the pedestrian first icon.
Pedestrian-Priority in Traffic Activities Organized with the “We are the Guards of Pedestrian Safety” motto
Pedestrian-priority in traffic activities with the “We are the Guards of Pedestrian Safety” motto were organized by the DGS Traffic Presidency concurrently across the country on 2 October 2019 under the coordination of the Ministry of Interior, to ensure that citizens and road users can maintain their lives in a more conscious and reliable traffic environment in road traffic and give pedestrian-priority in traffic prominence in public opinion.
Within this scope, awareness-raising activities were organized with the participation of the Minister of Interior and the press in areas where there are underpasses that pertain to schools identified in Ankara.
“We are All Together in this Road” Campaign
The traffic safety campaign named “We are All Together in this Road” was launched on 7 September 2018 under the coordinatorship of the Ministry of Interior to emphasize the importance of using seatbelt on ensuring traffic safety and prevent overspeeding as well as using a cell phone while driving. The campaign aimed at intensifying the awareness-raising activities and traffic controls along with the training for children and adults. The aforesaid campaign is still conducted to distribute several materials to road users in roadside control points in days and weeks when the numbers of traffic controls are increased.
“Let Your Seatbelt Influence Others to Protect Lives” Campaign
The traffic safety campaign named “Let Your Seatbelt Influence Others to Protect Lives” was put into practice between the dates 09-31 August 2019 which would cover the period of Eid-Al Adha in 2019. The voluntary video contest was organized via the official @TrafikEGM Twitter account within the campaign. Besides, 20,000 magnets were designed and distributed to the road users.
6 radio spots and 1 introduction film were prepared and screened in national/local TV and radio channels throughout the campaign to promote the campaign. Children were requested to send the videos they made to raise awareness that the drivers and passengers fastened their seatbelts throughout their travel in the contest organized via social media (Twitter) within the campaign, and 100 children who were chosen from amongst the videos sent were were rewarded 1 Scooter and head guard each.
Training Cooperation Efforts
Safe Driving Rules Training Project for Drivers with the Highest Number of Accident History
The organization of traffic trainings and raising awareness were aimed at for the drivers with the highest number of records on being involved in traffic accidents with the project launched in 2018, the information on drivers identified to have involved in the highest number of traffic accidents as the faulty party in the last 5 years were obtained from the Insurance Information and Surveillance Centre in 2018 and 2019. These drivers were ensured to be included in the short-term face-to-face training through the training module generated. Within the training programmes organized in 2018, 2,700 drivers were provided with safe driving rules trainings, while this number was 3,050 in 2019. The provision of trainings for 3,500 drivers similarly targeted continued in 2020 as well.
Life Tunnel Traffic Training Project with the “A Short Break for Life” Motto
Short-term traffic trainings have been started to be provided in closed traffic areas built in roadside control points for vehicle drivers across the country, to raise awareness in society on traffic safety, and within this scope, the provision of traffic trainings for 184,895 drivers and passenger is actively continued in 59 provinces in 2020.
Traffic Training Project for Teachers
General traffic trainings are provided to all teachers, especially those participating in traffic safety classes in primary and secondary education institutions, before the school year within vocational development in coordination with the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of National Education. One-day short seminars are organized on general traffic rules and traffic knowledge required to be known within the general curriculum for teachers in the relevant trainings. Within the project, 417,671 teachers were provided with the general traffic trainings and 238,260 in the one week in 2019.
Development of Traffic Awareness in Students Protocol signed between the MNE-TRT-DGS
The preparation of educational content related to traffic safety which students need was aimed at with the “Development of Traffic Awareness in Students Protocol” signed between the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of National Education, and the Directorate General of Turkish Radio and Television Institute on 21.09.2018. For this purpose, 4 TV public service ads and 17 radio spots were prepared with the contributions of TRT and were ensured to be broadcasted in traffic training and child training channels.
Additionally, the distribution of educational-content traffic logbooks, puzzles, and colouring books prepared by the DGS Traffic Presidency was ensured.
The shooting of cartoon animation named TRAFIK TAYFA whose one season was shot by the TRT was completed as well and its broadcast with 12 episodes was started as of 3 October 2020 within the project.
Traffic Training (Traffic Detectives) for Children Project
The cooperation protocol pertains to the “Traffic Training (Traffic Detectives) for Children Project” for children between the ages of 03-17 was implemented in coordination with the
and support from OPET and approximately 7,270,169 students were provided with the traffic trainings up to present. The trainings are continued in summer schools throughout the summer season and summer Quran courses affiliated to the Directorate of Religious Affairs.
3,100,000 Traffic Detectives IDs, 2 million bags, 3,800 pencils, 3,440 notebooks, and 200,000-holiday duty cards along with recently designed 400,000 educational colouring books were distributed as from the beginning of the project to inform the children in the age group between 03-08 on traffic safety.
Mobile Traffic Training Trailer Truck Coordination Project
The “Mobile Traffic Training Trailer Truck Coordination Project” was put into practice with the programme organized in Ankara on 16 September 2019 between the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of National Education to provide practical traffic training for students along with the education they receive in primary schools across Turkey.
Within the project, 2 trailer trucks allocated to the Directorate General of Security were modernized and transformed into a Mobile Traffic Training Trailer Truck and made ready for trainings. There is a setting to provide training for 12 students concurrently to be able to provide theoretical trainings within the trailer truck with 1 traffic training parkour and battery-powered traffic training vehicle prepared to be able to provide practical trainings with a portable and illuminated feature within mobile traffic training trailer trucks. Traffic trainings were provided with the Mobile Traffic Training Trailer Trucks by reaching 37,51 students in 526 schools in 53 provinces. The project aims at providing traffic trainings to approximately 6 million students studying especially in primary schools.
Collaborative Efforts Made with the Directorate General of National Lottery Administration
Informative designs are prepared and printed over the National Lottery tickets within the collaborative efforts between the Directorate General of National Lottery Administration and the DGS Traffic Presidency , to raise awareness on traffic safety.
The printing of tickets was ensured by making ticket design efforts for tickets dated 9 January and 9 May in 2019 within the project, and the necessary designing effort related to the tickets to be distributed to be used in the draw dated 9 July in 2020 was made and sent to the Directorate General of National Lottery.
Collaborative Efforts Made with the GSM Companies and Directorate General of Religious Affairs
Informative text efforts are made, and these texts are ensured to be read in mosques at assigned times, to be used in sermons preached in mosques in cooperation with the Directorate General of Religious Affairs to inform the road users due to increasing traffic density in religious holidays and raise necessary awareness.
Collaborative Efforts on Sharing the Accident Black Spots with Road Users Through Navigation Systems
The information on the up-to-date geographical segments where traffic accidents happening across the country is intense is ensured to be shared through navigation systems used to inform the road users in the period when the traffic density shows an increase in Turkey within the project. To that end, the sharing of 50 accident intensity areas identifiedeach year is ensured by the DGS Traffic Presidency with attention-increasing texts on digital maps open to share through the navigation systems.
Seatbelt Simulation Vehicle Trainings
Various activities are organized to show the importance of using seatbelt practically to ensure traffic safety across the country with 2 tumbling over and 1 head-on collision seatbelt simulation vehicles of the DGS Traffic Presidency . Within the activities organized, 7,253 citizens were provided with practical trainings on a seatbelt in 2019.
Traffic Media Awards Project
The “Traffic Media Awards Project” was put into practice in 2019 to use media known as the strongest and most effective promotion tool to announce road traffic safety culture to larger masses in public. The content of productions is reviewer and reporter and the score lists are presented to the opinion of board members at certain intervals to be presented to the members of Assessing Authority formed by the Ministry within the project.
The awarding of producers/directors of TV series, news programmes, and magazine programmes identified to have emphasized traffic safety positively, male and female actors featuring, news directors and news presenters with a ceremony to be organized, thus, raising awareness of the public was aimed at with this project.
The awards of the owners of productions coming in with the programme organized in İstanbul on 4 October 2019 were presented within the project conducted in 2019. The aforesaid project is continued in 2020 as well.
Child Traffic Training Parks
Traffic trainings are planned and organized in child traffic training parks under the coordinatorship of the Directorates of National Education and Branch Offices of Traffic Control in provinces to be able to provide the traffic trainings for preschool, elementary school, and secondary school students. There are currently 98 child traffic training parks, 72 of which are in city centres and 26 in district centres across Turkey.
Additionally, efforts on modernizing and designing of available child traffic training parks with insufficient capacity according to the Ministry of Interior in line with the technological requirements of today was started across the country. Again, efforts to put into service the modern child traffic training parks in a way to have the pre-determined standard features are made in 25 provinces without child traffic training parks within this context. The draft project prepared by the Directorate General of Security was sent to the provincial governorships and the infrastructure works were started. Applied traffic trainings were provided to 148,585 students in child traffic training parks in 2019, which was 31,127 in 2020 despite the pandemic process.
Within the efforts made by the Ministry of National Education:
The “There Are No Minor Mistakes in Traffic!” theatre performance was prepared to raise awareness of preschool and elementary school students, teach traffic rules, and create a traffic culture concerning the protocol signed between the Ministry National Education and the İstanbul Chamber of Commerce on 12 October 2019, 224 performance was presented in 56 schools and the traffic awareness was raised by reaching a total of 31,418 students directly. 2 “Traffic Man Animated Movie” were prepared and published in the “Education Information Network (EBA)” portal, to create traffic awareness in students and get them to adopt the traffic culture.
The “e-Traffic Examination Module” was generated to hold the private motor vehicle driving courses, occupational training and development courses in the transportation sector, engineering vehicle driving training courses examinations and supervise the staff assigned in these examinations on electronic media. A total of 4 “Traffic Man Animated Movies” were prepared to be used in private motor vehicle driving courses and private transportation services occupational training and development courses (SRC). The exact implementation of animated movies and examination rules contributed to the same standard performance of examinations across the country.
According to the efforts of the World Health Organization, pedestrians constitute more than approximately 1/5 of loss of lives happening due to traffic accidents. Pedestrian deaths and injuries pose a risk to all humans regardless of being any distinctive feature such as age, gender, socioeconomic level as well as constitute a preventable traffic safety problem.143
It is important to design the infrastructure in a way to protect pedestrians in order to prevent pedestrian deaths, keep the vehicle speeds at a speed limit that will not harm pedestrians in case of a potential accident, produce the vehicle physical structure with a design that will not harm pedestrians, monitoring the road user behaviours posing risk to pedestrians as part of traffic rules, make one of the priorities of all training activities the safety of pedestrians and other vulnerable road users, perform the intervention to save lives after accidents involving pedestrians under optimal conditions and urgently.
Ensuring a decrease in pedestrian deaths does not entirely depend on knowledge and skills, but also community support, vulnerability and risk perception, social norms and models, engineering measures, and controls. Therefore, the implementing partners and decision-makers must consider the activities for pedestrians not merely as interventions but assistance for other measures. The measures for pedestrians may include the following:
”Student Train” project is conducted to increase the safety of children at school ages to eliminate the aforesaid negative factors. This project ensures that all students going to the same school move collectively as pedestrians by using the same route and accompanied by their parents move collectively on the pavement in two lines on their way to and back from school and that the vehicle traffic is stopped by the responsible parent and the crossing of children is ensured in the intersection crossings.
It is possible to use the mass media campaigns on pedestrian safety to inform the public on pedestrian safety legislation, risk factors, the impact of collisions, and available solutions.
It is necessary to accept the vehicle drivers proving a risk factor to pedestrians along with pedestrians as the target group in campaigns related to pedestrian safety and organize the campaign accordingly. In this context:
Target driver behaviours:
Target pedestrian behaviours:
The scientific researches show that the risky driver group being the target group in campaigns related to pedestrians is the driver group between the ages of 18-25 referred to as the young drivers, and the pedestrian group as those in the middle and older age groups (between 25-65).144 Therefore, ensuring that the campaigns run are objective-driven materializes the efforts and increases their measurability.
Use of motor vehicles, especially automobiles, shows an increase in several countries gradually. Vehicles such as heavy ones and buses at the higher segment in terms of size and weight, when compared with automobiles using the same road, grows in importance as a criterion to be considered in terms of all road users.
According to the research conducted by IRAP, the following are the leading factors for the occurrence of a traffic accident:145
Ensuring the safety of people referred to as the passengers as amongst the road users exposing to risk in traffic accidents except for the driver is one of the matters to be taken into account in traffic safety efforts. Preventing people except for the driver getting harmed in private vehicles involving in traffic accidents and ensuring the safety of passengers in vehicles transporting passengers commercially should be discussed under two different titles. The passengers in vehicles transporting passengers commercially are also identified as customers, and therefore bring additional responsibilities to the company, while the protection of passengers in private vehicles is more limited in terms of traffic safety.
The percentage of life threat of people in a vehicle increases in side-on collisions in case the speed of the vehicle colliding is higher than 40 km, and the mortality risk increases in cases when the speed of the colliding vehicles is over 70 km in head-on collisions. Hence, keeping the vehicle speed at proper limits and informing the road users in this regard is crucial in all kinds of efforts made to protect the passengers in the vehicle.
Although the “active” road users are considered to have played more role in the occurrence of traffic accidents, it is possible to reduce the outcomes of accidents through the measures the “passive” road users, especially passengers, take.
Measures such as preferring safe transportation methods and directing supply-demand balance in favour of these transportation methods, the use of seatbelts, child protection system equipment, and preferring vehicles with in-vehicle safety systems in transportation activities are also traffic safety measures to be taken by passive road users referred to as the passengers. Furthermore, it is also significant to ensure that the passengers in the vehicle have sufficient knowledge on traffic rules and accurate behaviours in terms of preventing driver failures and taking measures before the occurrence of a potential traffic accident.
The traffic safety trainings principally happen as attracting the attention of the child on the rules to comply with in traffic by parents and the parents becoming a role model, because the behaviours, opinions, and evaluations of parents play an important role in the perspective of a child for the future.
Traffic safety training is a lifelong learning process and is complementary in the enforcement of proper infrastructure, vehicle design and laws along with the informational campaigns. The educational measures should be formed according to the stage of development of the child. The connection of children with traffic starts when they walk on the street, then, continues as bicycle and motorcycle rider, then eventually continues as a vehicle driver until the end of their lives.
It is essential to approach the training and promotion activities in a broader context then teaching them how to act in traffic. All road users have a duty to protect and keep children safe, and it is crucial to target drivers through training and promotion activities and raise the awareness of parents on the key roles they play in ensuring the safety of their children. Taking into account that especially parents are an important role model for children, it is necessary to remember that they have the opportunity to teach their children how to act safely through examples such as the use of seatbelts and behaviours in street as a pedestrian.
According to up-to-date studies on road safety training, it is considered that behavioural approaches laying emphasis on computer-based traffic simulations, role-playing and class activities, and developing practical skills through training are important for children. Campaigns focusing on improving the problem-solving and decision-making skills of children on traffic safety should be conducted.146
While organizing traffic safety campaigns for children, including the risk factors originating from the road and traffic elements within the Safe System Approach and informing children and families on these risk factors are of great importance.
Children are not physically at a similar structure with adults. Thus, taking measures on the protection of adults for children by minimizing them in certain proportionsis not enough to protect children:147
When considering this and several other situations, the scope of messages to be given in campaigns for children is more clearly understood, and one should remember to target parents in campaigns for children as well.
The traffic safety training is extremely important in terms of raising awareness and supporting the compliance to rules on traffic regulations. Besides, this training is also important in changing the misperceptions in the field of road safety. Traffic safety trainingshould not only focus on the road users learning traffic rules and comply with them, it should cover a wide range from safe street design to the importance of traffic regulations.
Children constitute one of the most important aspects of traffic safety training. Each child is currently a road user, and will probably become a driver in the coming years. Therefore, the benefits of traffic training initiated at earlier ages may be reaped in the long run.
Training programmes should be organized in schools and the children need to be taught the Safe System Approach, so that they can travel feeling safe as pedestrians, riding a bicycle, or in motor vehicles. Students can become aware of the need to build pavements and lanes for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as drivers, and acquire awareness on the fact that the loss of lives happening as a result of traffic accidents are unacceptable and preventable thanks to this approach.
The students have a positive disposition towards school-based activities. Thus, they may be adapted to traffic safety by ensuring the monitoring of the safe school road of students through applied pedestrian and bicyclist training in the traffic environment and encouraging the use of bicycle head guard. To that end, the contribution and support of school should be taken in information and awareness-raising efforts, and parents should become a part of these information and awareness-raising activities.
The traffic safety training should be reshaped, developed, and their scope should be increased as they get older and promote. Approaches for children at later ages involve role-playing and theatre as part of discussion, development and following programmes.
Such programmes should focus on motivation, beliefs and social norms, and how to cope with pressure. Well-targeted promotion activities raising risk awareness may become complementary to school-based training amongst youth.
The development of bicycle skills lies behind the traffic training of students, namely, a student developing the skill to ride a bicycle in school environment and area closed to traffic by age becomes familiar with the traffic flow, basic rules in traffic, and behaviours of road users. Therefore, it is recommended to teach riding bicycle to all students as a lesson in gym classes at schools.
The skills acquired at these ages continue lifelong, the effort to live an active and sportive life in the following years lead to the adoption of an environmentalist, health-friendly, affordable, and traffic-free transportation mode along with the continuation of skills acquired in pupillage, children learning how to ride a bicycle in their pupillage may act more tolerantly to bicyclists being vulnerable road users when they grow up and become drivers.
Hence, it is significant to teach students at early ages how to ride a bicycle at schools, explain why the head guard is necessary, and assist them in gaining the proper behavioural models. Learning proper behaviours from teachers rather than improper ones from friends will shape the future life of students.
The need to give the responsibility of road safety of children to drivers is adopted gradually. However, no matter how children get training and education on road safety skills, they continue to be less successful in using knowledge and skills constantly when compared with adults. Drivers should be aware of children’s skills and the driver training needs to raise the awareness of inexperienced drivers against threats in places where there are children.
It will be appropriate that the traffic safety campaigns targeting drivers encourage drivers to act more safely by raising awareness related to how children act, warning the drivers on the legal liabilities for the protection of other people in the vehicle, child pedestrians, and bicyclists, and emphasizing issues such as speed selection.
Campaigns should also improve the awareness of drivers on the use of child protection systems, seatbelt in automobiles, and the importance of proper use of seatbelts. Another element to use in campaigns is the use of the influence of children on their families to improve driver behaviours.
When examining the main features the traffic safety campaigns for children must have, one can see that:148
type of principles become prominent, and it is crucial to pay maximum attention to these principles in training, information, and awareness-raising campaigns that are run for students.
Age is amongst the factors increasing the risk of getting injured between the road users, especially pedestrians, and the change happening in human characteristics and skills based on age increases the vulnerability characteristic in the context of traffic safety. Various factors are increasing the risk in elderly pedestrians:149
The characteristics of elderly people in becoming vulnerable road users as part of traffic safety increases due to such and similar reasons, and their characteristics on being the target group to be affected become prominent in terms of traffic safety campaigns.
The organization of infrastructure regulations, lightings, and traffic rules in fields such as parks, gardens, nursing homes, the environment of sanctuaries considering the special conditions of elderly people is crucial for the protection of this vulnerable road user group. Brighter lights and signs for elderly people with visual weakness, lower curb ramps and longer green lights for elderly people having trouble in walking, and details such as non-skid surface pavements for elderly people using walking sticks should be considered to ensure the safety of elderly people.
Measuring the results of information and awareness-raising campaigns for elderly people is exceedingly difficult. Notwithstanding, conducting awareness-raising campaigns enabling this road user group to subject themselves to evaluations by learning the risks their health conditions and vulnerable physical structures pose in terms of driving safety to have contributions to traffic safety. Therefore, these campaigns should be ensured to focus on:150
People with physical disabilities necessitates the consideration of their vulnerability in terms of traffic safety, the road and road parameter, and vehicle safety measures to be designed according to the disability status of the person, the traffic safety training to be organized in line with the disability status of the person, and the disability status of the person to be taken into consideration in traffic controls.
The fact that persons with disabilities can continue their lives without being dependent on others, become a part of the producing labour force, and be involved in social life without being exposed to any more risk due to their disabilities is significant in terms of traffic safety.
Moreover, ensuring the participation of persons with disabilities in public health activities for a healthy life, the services and on-time interventions, and the presence of accessible barriers around the person with disability and interaction in their participation in daily life activities should be amongst the main objectives.
Engineering measures and training constitute the two aspects of ensuring that persons with disabilities can move without getting harmed in road traffic. One should underline that the engineering measures involve road and road parameters, and vehicles and training activities do persons with disabilities, the immediate surroundings they are in contact with, and the entire community.151
The training activities carried out to ensure the safety of persons with disabilities in traffic need to be supported with awareness-raising activities and campaigns for the three target groups as specified above.
It is necessary to act according to the following principles in the training and awareness-raising efforts for persons with disabilities:
and training, information, and awareness-raising activities should be carried out, and trainings campaigns be organized.
When taking into consideration the migratory routes, Turkey has been in the position of a natural bridge uniting the East and the West for people throughout history as from its geographical position. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing economic power of Turkey and the political stability it has, the “transition country” position of Turkey in terms of migration movements has changed in the recent years, and it has become a “target country” at the same time. As from its geographical position and the fact that it is located over important migratory routes, Turkey has witnessed and hosted several large and small migratory processes from past to present.152
Turkey has not turned a cold shoulder to the humanitarian plights experienced in its nearby and distant geography, rather become the country doing adequately in the provision of humanitarian assistance to several helpless and displaced humans, being organized, and providing systematic services.
With reference to the presence of a strong political will and understanding of the civil society in Turkey, it is honorary to observe that there is public and private sector collaboration, the disaster and emergency aid organizations are well-prepared, well-organized, and have a large capacity.
Human security involves all dimensions of safety. Such that, the safety of human is intertwined with societal safety, employee safety, social safety, education safety, and health safety. Ensuring the traffic safety of foreigners who are involved in traffic as a road user,is not that familiar with the traffic rules and traffic signs currently in force and are in Turkey temporarily constitutes one of the important dimensions of human security.
On the other hand, ensuring the compliance of foreigners visiting Turkey, as it is becoming153 one of the important touristic destinations as a result of efforts shown in creating alternative tourism areas, especially the increasing tourism potential and health tourism each year, for various purposes such as visiting, commerce, business, and entertainment is significant in terms of both the maintenance of established order and the prevention of foreigners and other road users in Turkey getting harmed, even if they are in Turkey temporarily.
It is important to provide leaflets and brochures, and other informative materials reminding traffic rules in locations, especially border check-points, where there are foreigners and tourists frequently, and to include visual and audial materials and publications on traffic rules in touristic accommodation facilities, travel agencies, transportation vehicles, and other areas where there is an intensive number of tourists.
The importance of social media tools, whose usage is gradually increasing, has become incontrovertible in mass communication. The presentation of information on traffic regulations is also important in statements and introductions related to Turkey.
FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION, INFORMATION AND AWARENESS-RAISING EFFORTS, AND CAMPAIGNS
STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE: Contributing to Traffic Safety Through Formal and Non-Formal Education Information and Awareness-Raising Efforts, and Campaigns
GUIDING STRATEGIES AND SUGGESTIONS
ii. Traffic Training in Preschool Education Institutions
iii. Traffic Training in Basic Education Institutions
iv.Traffic Training in Secondary Education Institutions
v. Traffic Training in Higher Education Institutions
1. Standardizing the training materials in the education programmes of universities providing education on traffic training, including first aid topic in the programmes, and making efforts to fill the gaps in these institutions providing training,
2. Incentivizing vocational schools in the field of traffic and driving training,
3. Making efforts on accepting the admittance of students with a numerical score to the Transportation and Traffic Services Programme,
4. Providing the education on transportation engineering to construction, machinery, environment, geomatics engineering, urban and regional planners at postgraduate and doctorate level, performing sectoral employment needs analysis to open a department/discipline in transportation engineering,
5. Training all preservice teachers on traffic, first aid, and traffic manner topics in higher education programmes training teachers,
6. Codifying and promoting the “Road Safety Conferences” practice organized for students as a result of collaborative efforts of university administrations and non-governmental organizations at universities,
7. The Directorate of Traffic Institute with a committee within the Department of Police Academy to;
i. provide training and education to gain expertise and management notion in fields needed in terms of traffic safety by making use of domain experts within the practice,
ii. organize a course and certificate programmes, produce information in the field of traffic safety by being engaged in scientific research, examination, and publication,
iii. provide academic consultancy services in the field of traffic safety
iv. guide implementing units by being ensured to provide symposiums, meetings, panels, conferences, and seminars in the field of traffic safety.
v. Traffic Training in Higher Education Institutions
vi. General Traffic Training
ix. Training of Trainers
x Roles of Press, Media, and Other Organizations
xi. Traffic Culture